Seven Cardinal Symptoms of Mania and Hypomania

The seven classic symptoms of mania and hypomania are probably best summed up through the use of the acronym

D I G F A S T

Distractibility: Inability to maintain focus on tasks

Insomnia: Reduced need for sleep accompanied by increased energy in spite of little sleep

Grandiosity: Inflated self-esteem

Flight of ideas: Racing thoughts

Activities: Increase in goal-directed activity – work, social, school

Speech: Excessive, circumstantial, tangential chatter, pressure to keep talking or more talkative than usual

Thoughtlessness: Risky behavior, such as excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a significant potential for adverse consequences – excessive spending, risky sexual behavior, reckless driving, gambling, impulsive traveling

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MANIA AND HYPOMANIA

Mania:

  • – Marked occupational/social dysfunction
  • – Often a need for hospitalization
  • – 67% of patients have a lifetime history of psychosis
  • – Minimum of one week duration according to DSM IV

Hypomania:

  • – No significant occupational or social dysfunction
  • – No hospitalization
  • – No psychotic features
  • – Minimum four-day duration (average is 2-3 days)
Joseph Wegmann, R.Ph., LCSW is a licensed clinical pharmacist and a clinical social worker with more than thirty years of experience in the field of psychopharmacology. His diverse professional background in psychopharmacology and counseling affords him a unique perspective on medication management issues. In addition to consulting with numerous psychiatric facilities, he has presented psychopharmacology seminars to thousands of clinicians in 46 states.

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